In Lisbon, as in many other Portuguese cities, there are a lot of ups and downs in the landscape. I was there in spring and the daily temp was 30 - 33°C and apparently it gets warmer in summer. The hills look smooth from a distance, but are steep. On a nice warm day, you will build up a sweat, going from one place, to the next - with a lot of ups and downs inbetween. So, the Portuguese has some solutions to make life easier for those (like tourists) who trudges a lot of hills daily.
1. Picture left: Roads that are actualy staircases. See the road (staircase) going up the side of the buildings.
2. Picture top right: The famous tram 28, which conveniently runs up and down some of the hills in parallel to the river. Since this tram is in big demand by tourists, one has to watch out for pick-pockets.
3. Picture second from the top, right: The tuk-tuk services, as well as taxis will make easy fare of a hill.
4. Next down on the right: Elevador da Glória runs up and down its track, to connect the lower lying Avinadas area with the Bairro Alto area. As you can see, there is enough sidewalk for footsloggers.
5. Bottom right: Elevador de Santa Justa consist of the bridge leading to an elevator shaft, where one can take the elevator. In this case the elevator is the normal box hanging from cables, in a shaft. Santa Justa connects Baixa (the nearer rooftops) with the Bairro Alto and Chiado areas. This contraption was built at the turn of the 20th century and is the design of Raoul du Ponsard, an apprentice of Gustave Eiffel.
Both these Elevadors are run by the Yellow Bus (topless tourist bus) company, so your valid Yellow Bus ticket, will also be good for the Elevadors. One can also buy a daily ticket that is valid for public buses, trams, trains, elevadors and metro's (underground). So with a little planning, one can control the number of times you go up and down by leg power and also the cost of travelling around the city.