A study of how birds handle heat. All the birds are red-capped larks. The temperature at the time was around 44°C.
In the top picture, the lark chose the shadow of a fence post to sit in. You can also see that the wing is slightly dropped, which provide some space between the wing and body. The beak is not open, which is what they normally do in high temperature, to increase airflow. There is an open dam about 10 meters away behind my back, so I believe the bird had a drink.
The bottom picture shows how 5 red-capped larks found shadow in the overhanging bank of a dry river bed. Note the open beaks. They are not near a water source.